General Characteristics
Crew: 2
Length: 33 ft 0 in (10.06 m)
Wingspan: 40 ft 1 in (12.22 m)
Height: 12 ft 8 in (3.86 m)
Wing area: 268 ft² (24.9 m²)
Empty weight: 6,424 lb (2,914 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 8,500 lb (10,500 with combat stores) (3,856 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-1820-86 Cyclone radial engine, 1,425 hp (1,063 kW)
Maximum speed: 343 mph (552 km/h)
Service ceiling: 39,000 ft (10,820 m)
Rate of climb: 4,000 fpm
Guns: machine gun pods containing .30 in (7.62 mm) (training), .50 in (D-model) or twin pods with .50 in (12.7 mm) and 20 mm (.79 in) cannon (Fennec)
Hardpoints: 2 or 6 × wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying bombs, napalm, rockets

T-28A Trojan

The North American Aviation T-28 Trojan is a piston-engined military trainer aircraft used by the United States Air Force and United States Navy beginning in the 1950s. Besides its use as a trainer, the T-28 was successfully employed as a Counter-insurgency (COIN) aircraft, primarily during the Vietnam War.

Manufactured in 1949 by North American Aviation as an advanced trainer for the United States Air Force (USAF).

Cactus Air Force owns 3 T-28 Trojans.


This aircraft was used by the by the Air Training Command at Hondo Air Force Base(AFB), Texas until being placed into storage area until 1961. Purchased as government surplus in 1962 and utilized as a private sport aircraft until being used as a spare parts source on the rebuild of T-28D’s and subsequently used as a “Wind Tee” at a New Jersey airport until being purchased by the Cactus Air Force, for the benefit of the Wings and Wheels Museum, in 1976.  As a “Bi-Centennial” project we began diligently putting forth stewardship to restore, fly and display this aircraft.

First flown by the CAF in 1980 and now painted in Sea 1968 color Scheme. This Aircraft has its original R-1300-1B engine of 800 H.P. and has been converted with a Hamilton-Standard 3 blade propeller in lieu of the original Aeroproducts 2 blade propeller.


This aircraft is now in restoration by the Cactus Air Force. Purchased by the CAF from an individual in Orlando, Florida in 1982. This aircraft will utilize all new parts from the CAF T-28 inventory and will be painted in high visibility Arctic colors of 1962.


This aircraft was purchased by the Cactus Air Force in 1978 directly from the U.S.A.F. at Davis-Monthan AFB as scrap. This aircraft was the last operational T-28A in the USAF. Currently in storage.

Design & Development

On September 24, 1949, the XT-28 (company designation NA-159) was flown for the first time, designed to replace the T-6 Texan. Found satisfactory, a contract was issued and between 1950 and 1957, a total of 1,948 were built.

Following the T-28’s withdrawal from U.S. military service, a number were remanufactured by Hamilton Aircraft into two versions called the Nomair. The first refurbished machines, designated T-28R-1 were similar to the standard T-28s they were adapted from, and were supplied to the Brazilian Navy. Later, a more ambitious conversion was undertaken as the T-28R-2, which transformed the two-seat tandem aircraft into a five-seat cabin monoplane for general aviation use. Other civil conversions of ex-military T-28As were undertaken by PacAero as the Nomad Mark I and Nomad Mark II.

Operational History

After becoming adopted as a primary trainer by the USAF, the United States Navy and Marine Corps adopted it as well. Although the Air Force phased out the aircraft out of primary pilot training by the early 1960s, continuing use only for limited training of special operations aircrews and for primary training of select foreign military personnel, the aircraft continued to be used as a primary trainer by the Navy (and by default, the Marine Corps and Coast Guard) well into the early 1980s.

The largest single concentration of this aircraft was employed by the U.S. Navy at NAS Whiting Field in Milton, Florida in the training of student naval aviators. The T-28’s service career in the U.S. military ended with the completion of the phase in of the T-34C turboprop trainer. The last U.S. Navy training squadron to fly the T-28 was VT-27, based at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, flying the last T-28 training flight in early 1984. The last T-28 in the Training Command, BuNo 137796, departed for Naval District Washington on 14 March 1984 to be displayed permanently at Naval Support Facility Anacostia, D.C. Many T-28s were subsequently sold to private civil operators, and due to their reasonable operating costs are often found flying as warbirds today.

In September 2011 a T-28 Trojan stunt team lost one of its planes and pilots during an air show in Martinsburg, West Virginia. No other casualties were reported.

Vietnam War

In 1963, a Laotian Air Force T-28 piloted by Lieutenant Chert Saibory, a Thai national, defected to North Vietnam. Saibory was immediately imprisoned and his aircraft was impounded. Within six months the T-28 was refurbished and commissioned into the North Vietnamese Air Force as its first fighter aircraft.

T-28s were supplied to the South Vietnamese Air Force in support of ARVN ground operations, seeing extensive service during the Vietnam War in VNAF hands, as well as the Secret War in Laos. The T-28 Trojan was the first US fixed wing attack aircraft (non-transport type) lost in South Vietnam, during the Vietnam War. Capt. Robert L. Simpson, USAF, Detachment 2A, lst Air Commando Group, and Lt. Hoa, SVNAF, were shot down by ground fire on August 28, 1962 while flying Close Air Support (CAS). Neither crewman survived. The USAF lost 23 T-28s to all causes during the war, with the last two losses occurring in 1968.

Other Uses

T-28s were also used by the CIA in the former Belgian Congo during the 1960s.  France used locally re-manufactured Trojans for close support missions in Algeria.   The Philippines utilized T-28s (colloquially known as “Tora-toras”) during a series of unsuccessful coups d’état during the 1980s, the aircraft were often deployed as dive bombers by rebel forces.

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